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tv   European Journal  PBS  October 10, 2011 6:30pm-7:00pm PDT

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captioned by the national captioning institute --www.ncicap.org-- >> hello. welcome to "european journal," with you from brussels as usual. this week, we report from northern ireland where an irish shooting is bringing a disturbing allegations of irish and british collusion. also this week, europe's controversial capital of culture. could this anti-corruption campaign lead to russia's next president? and why sardinia is running out of poor man's caviar. in 1989, two northern irish
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policeman were shot dead in an ira and bush. the irish government set up a tribunal to investigate the death, a move they may well now investigate. the investigation has touched a raw nerve in the country's past. irish police are suspected of colluding in the attack, and allegations have surfaced that british intelligence was aware of the plot. quite to these men served in the royal constabulary -- >> these men served in the royal constabulary. there was a period of sectarian attacks between protestants and catholics. harry green is especially missed. >> he was quiet and reserved, although he had a fantastic sense of humor when it came to boosting and morale.
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>> he was respected teacher in the force. >> he did not need to be severe. that was the unique thing about him. he did not need to be harsh or severe. >> the two senior officers knew they topped the ira's lists of targets. after all, many others had been killed before. >> was murdered. every year after that, until harry's life was taken, he used to come around to see my father, and he would bring my father tobacco for his pipe. >> but on march 20th, 1989, superintendent harry green was ambushed. he was with superintendent bob buchanan after meeting police
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colleagues from the republic of ireland. at the cross border security talks, they discussed ways to stem about a smuggling ring controlled by the ira. when they beat stamp -- stamp out a smuggling ring controlled by the ira. when they returned, the killers were waiting. questions remain over how the terrorists knew when and where the two men would be crossing the border. he is convinced he knows the answer. he is the founder and head of the group family's acting for innocent relatives. his own father was killed by the ira. now he helps the family members of other victims. >> we know for a fact that a senior member of the ira was
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contacted by an officer and told they were ready to leave the station. it had to be in operation. there had to be collusion. >> he has talked to many witnesses. his campaign resulted in the formation of a special tribunal in dublin. the case is proving awkward for the irish government. it faces allegations that its own police officers collaborated with the ira. further north in belfast, some accuse dublin of being too eager to close the case. one of them is john mack bernie, a lawyer representing harry green's family. >> this tribunal was being curtailed in recent months by means of a motion by the
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minister of justice to try to put a time limit of the end of november for production of the report. that is not treatable. >> he says it is not as the irish authorities who are implicated. he claims there were agents planted within the ira. >> it has been alleged that they had an agent called steak knife who was head of the ira's internal security and passing information back to his british handlers. it is alleged that steak knife may have known about this murder in advance. why did the british army not prevented? >> some speculate that the british did not want to blow steak knife's cover. what was more important?
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the intermission coming from a top british agent or the lives -- information coming from a top british agent or the lives of two policemen. the truth could be about to surface. their friends and colleagues may soon know whether and by whom they were betrayed. >> san sebastian in the spanish basque region has been named as a european cultural capital for 2016, but the choice has sparked puree in other spanish cities bidding for -- a theory -- fury in other spanish cities are vying for the title. they claim the choice was made for political, not cultural reasons. >> with a skyline like miami, a
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beach like the couple cabana, and a film festival like cannes, san sebastian is spanish, yet a basque, historically separatist, but soon to be a cultural capital of europe. >> there is not a more beautiful city. as far as peace goes, there will not be any while aetna is still active. -- etna is still active. >> i do not want to hear anything about politics. >> san sebastian's role as european capital of culture is contentious. the city lies in the basque country. there, the separatist group eta has long demanded independence from spain and spread terror in the name of its cause. this memorial commemorates the
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victims of eta and violence. he is a member of the party with basque nationalist leanings. shortly after taking office, he sparked outrage by removing the kings portrait from the city council chamber. >> he is not hanging in the plenary chamber anymore because he is not representative of spanish democracy. >> the furor over the kings portrait is of little interest here. this is a traditional gastronomic society, one of 129 in san sebastian. a man only club open to new cultural influences but true to regional traditions. >> the capital of culture thing is ok. when visitors come here, they will be well looked after. guests are always welcome here.
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>> that laid-back attitude is commonplace in san sebastian, especially in the city's vibrant surfing community. there is always a crowd waiting for the perfect wave to come rolling in the. -- rowling illing in. >> some come from far away because it is a great place to surf. >> one man was a driving force behind a bid to be europe's cultural capital. he was the san sebastian socialist mayor for 20 years. he helped the city win out over 15 other candidates with a campaign of unity between basques and spaniards. >> it is clear that san sebastian represents all spaniards because there was a selection process for the whole
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of spain. that is a fact, even if they will not admit it. the winning city represents spain. >> but the new administration in city hall takes a different view. >> if we are to represent our culture in europe, we have no other option than to defend it in madrid, in the spanish state. the basque country remains the basque country. it is absolutely clear to us that we have our own culture within europe. >> politics is off limits for the hobby cooks here. so is the debate over san sebastian's role as european cultural capital in 2016. some even view the kitchen as a model for peaceful coexistence.
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>> the gastronomic societies work because there are people of all political persuasions here, and we all respect each other. >> that is a message many hope will resonate in five years' time, when all eyes in europe are on the cultural capital, san sebastian. >> we're off to russia now to meet a lawyer and blocker who is not afraid to speak out against russia's corruption. his supporters would like to see him become president. he is challenging putin's russia by exposing the dubious workings of state-run companies and the murky world of government tenders. although he does not have a party behind him, he has a high- profile internet site which attracts hundreds of thousands of followers.
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>> on trial yet again earlier this week. it is a familiar scenario for the qualified lawyer. he runs a popular online blogged exposing corruption and has been taken to court many times by his opponents. cameras are told to leave. >> as we want to get to the bottom of the issue, this trial is helping us. did he do it or didn't he? did he profit? that is what we want to find out. but it could take a very long time. >> this is the film that offended him. in it, he provides detailed evidence that he and his wife, a high ranking tax inspector, appropriated public money, the equivalent of 120 million heroes. the film shows the range of properties purchased by the couple across the world.
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the multimillion euro luxury homes would be impossible to afford on their regular, modest incomes. the most high-profile victim of the scandal was lawyer arrested after investigating the case who died in jail. authorities are accused of deliberately causing his death through appalling prison conditions and insufficient medical treatment. the film calls for those responsible to be punished, but no action has been taken. he has set up the website exposing corruption in public contracting. this is a play on words alluding to siphoning off money. it is funded solely by donations. he and his fellow lawyer activists want to see a proper
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challenge to the widespread corruption in russia. the corruption is tolerated, if not run by those in power. >> the entire political system under putin is based on corruption. everything is dedicated -- delegated. putin invites all of the elites from policy and industry to steal and get rich. in return, they owe him political loyalty and a consensus in today's russia. >> the team has compiled a long list of contracts they say in all corruption and theft. it totals almost 700 million heroes. >> we have a few thousand people regularly visiting our web site. when they find suspicious public contracts, they tell us about them. >> he is also supported by environmental activists. here they are meeting in a moscow forest that has been
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partially raised to make way for a highway. he holds up a banner parroting the official logo, united russia, a party of thieves and crooks. he once displayed a around the city. he himself has his critics. some people say his hard-line stance on immigrants puts him unsettling close to right-wing nationalists. he denies the charge. >> i fight for the rights of immigrants. we need steeper regulation, working our regulations and health insurance, so that an immigrant who gets injured on the job gets treated at hospitals instead of being left there. i do fight for their rights. >> his latest project focuses on the terrible state of russia's
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roads, another legacy of corruption. >> there are millions of bottles. why? because all of the money earmarked for repairs has been stolen and embezzled. we now have a really simple project. people can take photos of the holes and post them on line. we already have thousands of photos from all over russia. >> his campaigns have exposed a russia that is still on a very rocky road when it comes to corruption. >> switzerland appears to be fostering an increasing climate of xenophobia. two recent referendum spend the building of minarets and tighten deportation rules. the next proposal which the conservative suisse party wants to put to a vote is an initiative against immigration. opponents fear that this referendum could be successful.
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>> here we meet a representative of the youth ring of the nationalist suisse party who is standing ford election in october. the party came in first place in the last election. he has produced a rap song calling on voters to keep the land in suisse hands. the message is stop a mass immigration. >> the poster symbolizes very well what we want to say, stop immigration. >> it is possible to manufacture fear through propaganda for example. they have done that very successfully. it is used -- has used very extreme posters and slogans to stoke people's fears. >> they've already had two major successes, first, with their campaign against building
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minarets. in a referendum, 57% voted in favor of a band. then came the posters with immigrants as black sheep. again, they got what they wanted. the swiss voted to change the law to make it easier to deport foreigners. for nine years, people have been able to move back and forth to work. they want all of the new arrivals -- they say the new arrivals are causing problems. >> the focus is on rent, land prices, a town planning, the shortage of land, infrastructure, streets and to the railways. >> what does that mean, exactly? they need more buses and more roads because 80,000 immigrants are coming into the country every year. >> the question is, how big should switzerland get in terms of the number of people?
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it carries on like this, there will be a population explosion. >> scaremongers say the population is set to rise from 7 million-10 million. this is a big concern for over half the electorate. they're capitalizing on that. >> because switzerland this mall -- is small, a lot of people are worried about this in terms of the environment, multiculturalism, and other issues. >> take land prices. they are up 50%, but some suisse are doing very well out of that. >> maybe some people will make a profit, but most people do not benefit at all. ordinary people who have to work every day. >> that is nonsense, say the people here. they are against the campaign. without immigrants, they would not be able to make any of their famous swiss army knives. how would they cup without
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foreign workers? >> is probably not possible. the assembly industries that rely on foreigners. >> -- we have so many industries that rely on foreigners. >> most swiss firms hire workers abroad. the engineering industries say they could not cope with a swiss workers alone. >> not everyone in switzerland things like that, certainly not the business community. we see it differently. the initiative got through, it would be a problem. it would make the labor shortage even worse. >> many so-called foreigners are very popular in switzerland. the under-21 soccer team has players with names from nigeria, eastern europe and tunisia, although most of them were born in the country. >> our under-21 team embodies an open switzerland, one that is
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successful precisely because of its tolerance. >> the campaign is already eating away at that image of switzerland. he has achieved one of his aims. immigration is an election issue that no party can afford to overlook. >> most of the residents in the small town in one of the poorest regions of italy live from fishing, but overfishing in the mediterranean means that these days their nets are often empty. this part is famous for what is known as poor man's caviar, but stocks are rapidly dwindling, and local fishermen say life is hard. >> it is early morning just outside the city.
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every few days, these waters witness an age-old ritual. at an enclosure in the lagoon, a group of men gather. they are in their element and in no particular hurry. for the fish already trapped here, there is no escape. gray mollusks' swim here from the open sea to feed. they soon find themselves in a fisherman's net. they are a close-knit group and everyone knows his job. over the years, it has become an integral part of their working routine, when they cannot imagine doing without. but the fish numbers are dwindling, and their way of life
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is under threat. >> there are not many mullet around this year. it is getting less and less. this one is ok. it is about average, but you cannot use the small ones. >> most of these are male and will be sold at the local market. the few large females and up here, where their aid pouches are extracted and cured insult -- egg hatches are extracted and cured in salt. >> it originally came from here. now they are copying us all over the world. for me, it is a terrible thought. soon there will not be any more here.
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>> this fisherman is now having to search even further afield for a decent catch. here on the open sea off sardinia, he nets a meager hall of lobster and a few kilos of fish. that has become normal in these overfish waters. 6 kilometers of net are slowly pulled back on board, a tiring, time-consuming process that brings little profit. these fishermen are having to make do on the patents. -- do on a pittance. >> we all learn about 20 heroes today. -- ernest about -- erarn about 20 euros a day.
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>> even fixing italy's economic troubles would not mean anything to the recovery of the decimated fish population. still, they're trying to look on the bright side. >> we're just taking life as it comes and try not to get too stressed out about it. this is a happy place unhappy country. -- in a happy country. >> happy to have enough local product to grate on to their costa. -- pasta. it is just one of the small luxuries that makes these times more unbearable. >> -- the terrible.
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>> -- bearable. >> that is it. we hope you'll join us against next time. goodbye.
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